Sunday, March 27, 2011

Article regarding human trafficking

ARTICLE 1

WASHINGTON—
Three years ago, President Bush declared that he had "zero tolerance" for trafficking in humans by the government's overseas contractors, and two years ago Congress mandated a similar policy.

But notwithstanding the president's statement and the congressional edict, the Defense Department has yet to adopt a policy to bar human trafficking.

A proposal prohibiting defense contractor involvement in human trafficking for forced prostitution and labor was drafted by the Pentagon last summer, but five defense lobbying groups oppose key provisions and a final policy still appears to be months away, according to those involved and Defense Department records.

The lobbying groups opposing the plan say they're in favor of the idea in principle, but said they believe that implementing key portions of it overseas is unrealistic. They represent thousands of firms, including some of the industry's biggest names, such as DynCorp International and Halliburton subsidiary KBR, both of which have been linked to trafficking-related concerns


ARTICLE 2
Exploitation of Bangladeshis in Malaysia - HR activist terms it human trafficking
The exploitative practices centring Bangladeshi workers in Malaysia constitute nothing other than human trafficking; the governments of Bangladesh and Malaysia have not been able to protect the workers' rights, said Irene Fernandez, a veteran migrants' rights activist of Malaysia.
When they brought workers in surplus numbers to Malaysia, they were only interested in making fast cash. The outsourcing companies told Bangladeshi job brokers 'you pay me 500 ringgit per worker and find jobs for them and do whatever'. So, Bangladeshi job brokers then bought the workers from the outsourcing companies, and literally made them slaves. The brokers then told the workers 'you go and work, I will give you food and lodging'. And the workers were put to work for two, three, or four months. So, the contract that had been signed between the workers and recruiting agencies in Bangladesh, which was attested by the Bangladesh government, had no meaning any more.
The question is now, why no action is being taken against the Malaysian outsourcing companies for the fact that they violated the contracts. Again, the governments of both countries have not been able to enforce the rules. Malaysia has to make its companies accountable, and Bangladesh has to make its recruiting agencies accountable. Because the passports of the workers are being held and the workers who don't have any job are being locked up by the job brokers or the outsourcing companies, it constitutes nothing but human trafficking. And, with the global economic recession, the situation is going to worsen, because many of the companies, particularly in the manufacturing sector, are collapsing.
ARTICLE 3

Malaysia gets praises for battling human trafficking.


Home Minister Datuk Seri Hishammuddin Hussein said he was informed by the prime minister's office yesterday that Australian Prime Minister recognised Malaysia's efforts and seriousness in tackling the issues of human trafficking and smuggling of immigrants.The australian prime minister conveyed this to Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak during a phone conversation.Expressing his delight, Hishammuddin said that the Anti-Trafficking in Persons (Amendment) Bill received a consensus from both Barisan Nasional and the opposition MPs."It shows that all of us can make a stand and agree on the importance of the bill," he said at the Parliament lobby yesterday.He added that the amendment of the bill was monitored by the Australian government and they were impressed with the actions taken by Malaysia in taking precautionary measures in dealing with cross-border crimes.Hishammuddin added that he had also received the contents of the speech by Gillard through the Australian embassy.

"In the speech, Australia has stated clearly their committment to cooperate with Malaysia to reduce crimes in areas of terrorism, human trafficking and smuggling of immigrants as these are still very prevalent, and efforts will be strengthened and continued."
Earlier in parliament, Hishammuddin said from Feb to July 4 this year, 154 human trafficking cases were investigated, of which 127 cases were brought to court for trial.Of the 127 cases, 83 people were charged involving nine cases.To questions from MPs as to why those found guilty of human trafficking were not charged under the Immigration Act, Hishammuddin said it was not specifically enacted for tackling human trafficking."The Immigration Act does not have any elements on human trafficking and is not as comprehensive compared with the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Bill. Moreover, its penalties are lower."
He said under the Immigration Act, the only action that would be taken is to charge foreign immigrant with lack of proper travel pass and deport them back to their original countries.Earlier during the debate on the bill, Hasbi Habbibollah (BN-Limbang) said many girls from the neighbouring countries were duped into the flesh trade after they were initially promised other jobs.
"In my constituency, I have personally seen teenagers who managed to escape from human traffickers and sought refuge in a mosque."
He said the country's porous borders and lack of enforcement in the area made it harder for the government to check the problem.

ARTICLE 4

80 Filipino women on way to jobs in Malaysia, Middle East rescued from human traffickers

ZAMBOANGA, Philippines — Philippine police have rescued 80 Filipino women from a suspected human trafficking syndicate that was planning to send them to be maids in Malaysia and the Middle East.
Police Superintendent Celso Bael said they stopped the women, who pretended to be tourists, from boarding a chartered flight from the southern city of Zamboanga to Malaysia on Thursday.
He says that, from Malaysia, some would have been be sent to Libya, Lebanon and Egypt.
He says they were recruited from the Philippine capital and nine provinces around the country.
The women have been brought to the Social Welfare Department for counselling.
Few employment opportunities at home have forced millions of Filipinos to find work abroad, even in dangerous areas

 

Sunday, March 20, 2011

INTRODUCTION

Human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, harbouring, or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery, forced labour (including bonded labour or debt bondage) and servitude.Human trafficking differs from people smuggling. In the latter, people voluntarily request smuggler’s service for fees and there may be no deception involved in the (illegal) agreement. On arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually free. On the other hand, the trafficking victim is enslaved, or the terms of their debt bondage are highly exploitative. The trafficker takes away the basic human rights of the victim.
Victims are sometimes tricked and lured by false promises or physically forced. Some traffickers use coercive and manipulative tactics including deception, intimidation, feigned love, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage, other abuse, or even force-feeding with drugs to control their victims. People who are seeking entry to other countries may be picked up by traffickers, and misled into thinking that they will be free after being smuggled across the border. In some cases, they are captured through slave raiding, although this is increasingly rare.

Who are the victims?

Trafficked people are usually the most vulnerable and powerless minorities in a region. They often come from the poorer areas where opportunities are limited, they often are ethnic minorities, and they often are displaced persons such as runaways or refugees (though they may come from any social background, class or race). Women are particularly at risk from sex trafficking. Criminals exploit lack of opportunities, promise good jobs or opportunities for study, and then force the victims to become prostitutes. Through agents and brokers who arrange the travel and job placements, women are escorted to their destinations and delivered to the employers. Upon reaching their destinations, some women learn that they have been deceived about the nature of the work they will do; most have been lied to about the financial arrangements and conditions of their employment; and find themselves in coercive or abusive situations from which escape is both difficult or dangerous. Trafficking of children often involves exploitation of the parents’ extreme poverty. The latter may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts or gain income or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their children. In West Africa, trafficked children have often lost one or both parents to the African AIDS crisis. Thousands of male (and sometimes female) children have also been forced to be child soldiers. The adoption process, legal and illegal, results in cases of trafficking of babies and pregnant women between the West and the developing world. In David M. Smolin’s papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States, he cites there are systemic vulnerabilities in the intercountry adoption system that makes adoption scandals predictable. Thousands of children from Asia, Africa, and South America are sold into the global sex trade every year. Often they are kidnapped or orphaned, and sometimes they are actually sold by their own families. Men are also at risk of being trafficked for unskilled work predominantly involving forced labor which globally generates $31bn according to the International Labour Organization. Other forms of trafficking include forced marriage, and domestic servitude.

WHO CONTROLS HUMAN TRAFFICKING?

Trafficking is a fairly lucrative industry. In some areas, like Russia, Eastern Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, and Colombia, trafficking is controlled by large criminal organisations. However, the majority of trafficking is done by networks of smaller groups that each specialise in a certain area, like recruitment, transportation, advertising, or retail. This is very profitable because little startup capital is needed, and prosecution is relatively rare

Thursday, March 17, 2011

US involvement in Latin American Trafficking

Human trafficking is a global trade that generates over 10 billion dollars in revenue every year. The US State department estimates that nearly 600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked across borders worldwide for various reasons including ranging from forced labor to sexual exploitation. Latin American is one of the primary locations for human trafficking.It is estimated that nearly 1 million children in Latin America are domestic servants and are subject to various forms of abuse.This has forced a action from the United States to curb this rising dangerous trade. In response to rising trafficking the US State Department has issues annual Trafficking in Persons Report or TIP. The TIP has 4 levels. A country with a TIP level at Tier 4 has a severe trafficking problem, and the level of trafficking severity increase with increase each level. This report ranks and categorized countries based on how severe the trafficking problem is. Since its inception the their has been notable improvement in Latin American countries. In the the 2006 TIP report only the Belize, Cuba, and Venezuela were in the Tier three area. While other countries in the region had a relatively decent TIP rate compared to previous years. Though over Latin America did have the most Tier 3 than any other region. Sanctioned are supposed to be imposed on countries who have a poor ranking but as was the case with countries like Ecuador and Brazil few times are any penalties exacted except international disapproval. United States also passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act which give aid to foreign countries to combat human trafficking. Which provides about 361 billion dollars in aid

The US has provide over 94.7 billion dollars in aid worldwide with with help going to support nearly 61 countries in Latin America receiving nearly 29% of overall worldwide aid.[4] Programs to help trafficking in Latin America are headed by such departments in the US such as Department of State, the Agency for International Development, Department of Labor, Department of Justice, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Homeland Security, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement.[4] Among the top countries reaching US implemented programs are Mexico and Brazil. These organization set up events such as conferences, workshops, and public campaigns to raise awareness of human trafficking. Also in areas like Mexico the US has made a concentrated effort to work and set up programs with Mexican law enforcement to identify, arrest and detain traffickers and smugglers on the US-Mexican border. The program name Operation Against Smugglers Initiative on Safety and Security or OASISS concentrated efforts on these task and sought to improve communication between US law enforcement and Mexican law enforcement. A major problem encountered in Mexico is that
video

PICTURES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING











Wednesday, March 2, 2011

CAUSES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Causes of Human Trafficking
 Local factor
Human trafficking can be explained into two major causes such as local causes and international causes. In the area of local factors, abject poverty especially among women, a lack of political, social and economical stability are the few factors in the area of local factors. Besides that, a lack of reasonable and realistic prospects, situations of armed conflict and oppression, domestic violence and disintegration of the family structure also the other factors in local factors. Moreover, gender discrimination, lack of access to education and information and the HIV-AIDS reality can be explained into local factors. Lack of access to education and information is when the individual not concerns about how important other human beings to another. Gender discrimination is also the causes that make another gender that is male or female to be stressed out with the situation that happens among them. Domestic violence and disintegration of the family structure can be explained when the problems occur in community give a problem to another human beings and family members have to show more love and alert about their children.

Universal Factors.
Universal factors  such as even more limits and obstacles to legal migration channels to countries with stronger economies and regions with better prospects, a lack of public awareness of the dangers of trafficking, the high profit potential for those engaged in the criminal activity, the sophisticated organisation, resources and networking capacity of criminal networks, a lack of effective anti-trafficking legislation, and if such legislation exists, a lack of effective enforcement, global economic policies that foster exclusion of marginalised people, disintegration of social protection networks, widespread corruption in countries of origin, of transit and of destination among the persons capable or responsible to combat trafficking. A lack of effective anti-trafficking legislation is one of the important factors because a good system should be provided by government to overcome this human trafficking to be happened. Besides that, a lack of effective enforcement by the authority gives us a major problems and this will not give a full stop to this problems. Government and the society should be united to solve this sophistic issue.
There are few countries that we can take an example of the issue of human trafficking such as in Burma. The military junta’s gross economic mismanagement, human rights abuses, and its policy of using forced labour are the top causal factors for Burma’s significant trafficking problem. The official ban on overland emigration of most young women drives some seeking to leave the country into the hands of “travel facilitators,” who may have ties with traffickers. Besides that, the lacks of job opportunities and higher incomes have also pushed Burmese to migrate into one of its five neighbouring countries. This situation has created an opportunity for traffickers to lure the victims to other countries with false premises.
Malaysia is a destination country for a significant number of men women, and children who are trafficked from Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma, and the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan for sexual and labour exploitation. Many victims voluntarily migrate to Malaysia to work in factories, construction and agricultural sectors, or as domestic servants, but are later coerced into debt bondage or involuntary servitude. The Malaysian NGO, Tenaganita reported that 65 percent of the trafficking victims in Malaysia are for forced labour.
In Indonesia, UNICEF argues that the lack of birth registration increases the vulnerability to trafficking. About 60 percent of children who are under five years old do not have birth certificates; about half are not registered anywhere.

STATISTICS ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING

  • An estimated 27 million people are held in slavery worldwide, meaning there are more slaves in the world than were taken from Africa during 300 years of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. 
  • More slaves alive now than at any other time in history.
  • After drug trafficking, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms trade as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and it is the fastest growing. (hhs)
  • Approximately 800,000 to 900,000 victims annually trafficked across international borders worldwide. (Dept of State)
  • The average price of individual slaves is less than a new cell phone or about $90. (nfs)
  • By 2010, Human Trafficking will be the # 1 crime worldwide. (Dept of State)
  • Every 10 minutes, one person is trafficked into the U.S. Around the World, a victim is exploited every minute.
  • Each year, more than 1 million children are exploited in the global commercial sex trade.
  • Approximately 80 percent are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors. (Dept of State)
  • The majority of transnational victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. (Dept. of State)
  • Between 18,000 and 20,000 victims trafficked into United States annually. Many who work with this issue believe this number is considerably higher.
  • In the United States alone, it is estimated that there are 200,000 slaves.
  • More than half of victims trafficked into United States are thought to be children; victims are probably about equally women and men. (hhs)
  • Victims can be trafficked into the U.S. from anywhere in the world. Victims have come from Africa, Asia, India, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Russia, and Canada and many other locations. (hhs)
  • 13 is the average age of entry into pornography and prostitution in the USA. (FBI)
  • 100,000 to 300,000 children in America are at risk for sex trafficking each year.
  • As many as 2.8 million children live on the streets, a third of whom are lured into prostitution within 48 hours of leaving home.
  • After drug dealing, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms trade as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and it is the fastest growing. (hhs) 
Additional human trafficking statistic in the united states of america

human trafficking world  map


male human trafficking in united states of america


WAYS TO OVERCOME HUMAN TRAFFICKING

When the issue increase on in our community part either in Malaysia or as international issue, it is mean that, we need to find the best solution for it, to make our life, our community live in harmony. As we know, this issue has been started a couple years back and become seriously increase when the world facing the globalization, thus many kind of thing appear out rapidly. Actually the growing of globalization can give us good and also the bad thing that we cannot expect it to be. The issue come out from globalization is like the human trafficking issue. It is also can be classify as an international crime by people who are involve in many thing that globalization brings such as the technologies, for example widely communication within many country around the world. In this situation, the criminal can be easily communicated up with the other group in such as many different countries to deal. Here, we want to state that, the growing of globalization have been cause many serious issue and international crime that relate with our life. If we manage to handle it, our life could be more interesting.
The solution for the human trafficking issue can be in many various way and type. But the solution must be strong enough to prevent and bring the human trafficking criminal to justice. As we know that, in many countries, government act as an institution of making rule and regulation. Rule and regulation can be made as a way to overcome the human trafficking issue. To make it more effective, law enforcement can be done by our security department such as police, and also with monitoring by Ministry of Home Affairs. It is because the law enforcement is the best solution to preventing this issue from rising up more. Police and The Ministry of Home Affairs can join up together with General Operation Force (PGA) and some more institution like Immigration Department of Malaysia to keep watch the activities in many areas like airports. It is because, the human trafficking criminal can do this crime at anytime without no one realize about it. The group are very smart and cunning in doing their task, so, the best way also, we can train up our security level to a higher level and equip them with a new brand of weapons, and telecommunication equipment to make them easier to transfer data of the criminal and communicate among them.


At the same time also, what we can do is to reform a new policy so it can be more relevant with the current situation. It is because, our policy had been made during our country demand the independence from the British Colonist, and so it might be possible that the policy is not relevant anymore in our new life and current issue. The policy makers should be more comprehensive doing the policy to make sure that it will suite the local citizens and to ensure that the human trafficking criminal cannot escape from their wrong doing. Mean time, our national leaders could also sit up together and find the best solution, discuss about how to improve our security act and solve this issue with the leaders from various country that involve in this crime. It is also possible if the new policy can overcome this crime. Opinions from local citizens and other country can be the solution also because we can help the government to overcome this serious crime
Moreover, to make this crime did not boost up more; the government can equip many new things that can improve our security level. For example, to set up Closed-circuit television (CCTV) that use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It transfers the image about what exactly happen on the current time. CCTV is often used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores. At the same time, the government also need to set up the CCTV in many new hotspots that are high possibility crimes will happen. So, the CCTV must be a good and the quality should be the priority to get the clear view about what the criminal do, and it could be the strong evidence in court to charge them. Fingerprints reader would be more effective with the face detection camera unit at many areas such as airports, and it can detect the criminal even though they have changed their passport identity.
Non Government Organization (NGO) should take their part to overcome this human trafficking issue. For example, NGO’s can organize more campaign to citizens on how to protect themselves from being cheated by those criminal. The NGO’s can join up together with the mass media such as television, radio, newspaper and also the internet to educate community about human-trade information. The NGO’s should be closer with the government in the parliamentary to discuss the solution for it. NGO’s also should not strive for the environmental issues solely, but the humanities issue are also the important issue now. People who are not high well education, will easily get cheated by luxury life, so, they are willing to get abroad to the new country to get job, and money for their expenses. They won’t realize that they can be cheated easily, so, this people need guidance. People those who were saved from becoming the slave in various activities, are homeless, and they have nothing in the new country. So, NGO’s also can start a new life for them, by conducting financial fund. The contribution will help to protect the victims by providing them a shelters, cloths, food and others basic things that they need. Motivation is the most important things and they really need it to gain back their hopes. We also can help the NGO’s by be volunteers in welfare organizations to help the victims.

CONCLUSION

The human trafficking issues is a humanities issue which usually occurs in backward countries where it involves the poor exploited by those who initially promised income if they been accepted for work place and in accordance with the sector and where they live and narrowness needed. The poor usually have complex financial problems, and this makes them willing to place themselves in anywhere without investigating the background and basic information that what will be their job. Furthermore, they are also lack of knowledge because ignorance about their rights and the importance of understanding how to defend themselves from deceived cause they are unable to get out when hit by this problem. At the same time also, they are lack of exposure, and they are more easily cheated. Thus, measures the best solution is comprehensive, especially the involvement of government in formulating and drafting laws that can protect people from falling prey to problems. Moreover, the involvement of NGOs’ in helping the government solve this problem is appropriate and timely because the NGO’s can carry out the duties that can not be carried out by Government. This issue will only be done if all the emphasis and direct assistance whether in terms of moral and financial, and suggestions with combating this commercial crimes.